Thursday, 18 Aug 2022

When Isotretinoin Fails: Causes and Treatment Options

INDIANAPOLIS – When adolescents present with acne that is not responding to isotretinoin, make sure to ask if they’re taking the medication when eating fatty food – which is known to increase the drug’s bioavailability, advises James R. Treat, MD, a pediatric dermatologist at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

“We see lots of teenagers who are on a restrictive diet,” which is “certainly one reason they could be failing isotretinoin,” Treat said at the annual meeting of the Society for Pediatric Dermatology.

Dr James R. Treat

Often, patients say that they have been referred to him because they had no response to 20 mg or 30 mg per day of isotretinoin. But after a dose escalation to 60 mg per day, their acne worsened.

If the patient’s acne is worsening with a cystic flare, “tripling the dose of isotretinoin is not something that you should do,” Treat said. “You should lower the dose and consider adding steroids.” For evidence-based recommendations on managing acne fulminans, he recommended an article published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology in 2017.

Skin picking is another common reason for failure of isotretinoin, as well as with other acne therapies. These patients may have associated anxiety, which “might be a contraindication or at least something to consider before you put them on isotretinoin,” he noted.

In his experience, off-label use of N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant and cysteine prodrug, has been “extremely effective” for patients with excoriation disorder. In a randomized trial of adults 18-60 years of age, 47% patients who took 1,200-3,000 mg per day doses of N-acetylcysteine for 12 weeks reported that their skin picking was much or very much improved, compared to 19% of those who took placebo (P = .03). The authors wrote that N-acetylcysteine “increases extracellular levels of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens,” and that these results support the hypothesis that “pharmacologic manipulation of the glutamate system may target core symptoms of compulsive behaviors.”

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha blocker adalimumab is a reasonable option for patients with severe cystic inflammatory acne who fail isotretinoin, Treat said. In one published case, clinicians administered adalimumab 40 mg every other week for a 16-year-old male patient who received isotretinoin for moderate acne vulgaris, which caused sudden development of acne fulminans and incapacitating acute sacroiliitis with bilateral hip arthritis. Inflammatory lesions started to clear in 1 month and comedones improved by 3 months of treatment. Adalimumab was discontinued after 1 year and the patient remained clear.

“There are now multiple reports as well as some case series showing TNF-alpha agents causing clearance of acne,” said Treat, who directs the hospital’s pediatric dermatology fellowship program. A literature review of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab for treatment-resistant acne found that all agents had similar efficacy after 3-6 months of therapy. “We see this in our GI population, where TNF-alpha agents are helping their acne also,” he said. “We just have to augment it with some topical medications.”

Certain medications can drive the development of acne, including phenytoin, phenobarbital, lithium, MEK inhibitors, EGFR inhibitors, systemic steroids, and unopposed progesterone contraceptives. Some genetic conditions also predispose patients to acne, including mutations in the NCSTN gene and trisomy 13.

Treat discussed one of his patients with severe acne who had trisomy 13. The patient failed 12 months of doxycycline and amoxicillin in combination with a topical retinoid. He also failed low- and high-dose isotretinoin in combination with prednisone, as well as oral dapsone at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day for 3 months. He was started on adalimumab, but that was stopped after he flared. The patient is now maintained on ustekinumab monthly at a dose of 45 mg.

“I’ve only had a few patients where isotretinoin truly has failed,” Treat said. He described one patient with severe acne who had a hidradenitis-like appearance in his axilla and groin. “I treated with isotretinoin very gingerly in the beginning, [but] he flared significantly. I had given him concomitant steroids from the very beginning and transitioned to multiple different therapies – all of which failed.”

Next, Treat tried a course of systemic dapsone, and the patient responded nicely. “As an anti-inflammatory agent, dapsone is very reasonable” to consider, he said. “It’s something to add to your armamentarium.”

Treat disclosed that he is a consultant for Palvella and Regeneron. He has ownership interests in Matinas Biopharma Holdings, Axsome, Sorrento, and Amarin.

This story originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.

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